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现在流行的看法认为，漂浮的粪便是健康状况不佳的表现，说明一个人无法正确地吸收脂肪等营养物质，下沉的粪便是消化道处于最佳工作状态的标志。 实际上，真相与此恰恰相反。漂浮的粪便其实是好兆头（我们这里说的不是腹泻的情况，腹泻是另外一回事，腹泻情况下漂浮的任何颗粒都是未消化的食物，这表明有东西导致人体在消化完成之前就将食物排出）。 粪便漂浮或者半漂浮意味着粪便绝大多数成分是纤维，这是非常好的一件事情。这意味着：1）一个人膳食纤维摄入量足够高；2）消化道处于正常工作状态，食物中的各类元素诸如脂肪、蛋白质、糖分、碳水化合物和其他营养物质被正常消化吸收，排出的粪便中绝大部分只剩下纤维。纤维状的粪便是肠道的绝佳洗涤器。当纤维为主的粪便通过消化道时，它会收集消化道内陈旧的垃圾，包括消化道壁口袋中的氨气。这是粪便漂浮的原因。 另一方面，密度高而且沉重的粪便会迅速沉入马桶底部，这意味着粪便中充满了未经消化的脂肪和蛋白质。这可能表明一个人的肝脏负荷过重，处于预脂肪肝、肝脏停滞或胆汁生成不足的阶段，因此无法帮助人体分解并吸收脂肪，或将其分解使用。下沉的粪便纤维含量也很低，通常充满了未能被吸收的蛋白质和碳水化合物，它们会穿过肠道中间部位，而不会与肠道内壁有充分接触，因此无法清除氨气和其他肠道内垃圾。 请不要因为粪便下沉而有心理压力，因为肝脏有时会有意去除多余的脂肪以保护我们的健康，这不一定是因为肝脏出了问题；有些时候下沉粪便与肝脏无关，压力会导致肠道打结，从而紧压粪便。只需要尽可能维持健康饮食，减轻肝脏的负担即可。 本文主要想要说明的是，请不要因为漂浮的粪便而担心。一个人饮食越健康，摄入生的蔬菜水果越多，例如较长时间生食，则更容易出现漂浮的粪便。时不时出现漂浮粪便正说明身体在进行所需的清理工作。 二．粪菌移植 粪菌移植有几种不同的名称，其中包括粪便微生物菌群移植（FMT）、粪便细菌疗法和粪便移植。这个想法是将看似健康的人的粪便转移到有肠道疾病（诸如艰难梭菌感染）的病人身上，捐献者粪便中的有益细菌能增强患者的菌群，使他能够实现肠道中的平衡并从感染中疗愈。 这种方式的问题在于医学界现在对众多的有害细菌、病毒和罕见的真菌菌株种类完全不了解，因此不会对捐献者的粪便进行此类检测。因此，不管移植程序无菌与否，接受粪菌移植的人都可能会感染粪便中未经检测的病原体。如果接受移植的人本身就有疾病或免疫系统较弱，那这样做的风险高于收益。
FLOATING STOOL ANALYSIS There’s a widespread belief that a stool that floats in the toilet bowl is a sign of ill health—most notably an indication that you’re not properly absorbing nutrients such as fat. You’ll hear that a stool that sinks is supposed to be the sign of a digestive tract that’s in top working order. In fact, it’s the reverse. “Floaters” are a good sign. (Although diarrhea is, of course, a different story. Any particles that float in that instance are pieces of undigested food, and an indication that something’s amiss to cause the body to expel waste before it was finished with digestion.) Intact stools that rise to the top of the bowl, or are semi-submerged, are stools made of mostly fiber, and that’s a great thing. It means that (a) your dietary fiber intake is high enough, and (b) your digestive tract is in proper working order, so that as food under goes digestion, all the fats, proteins, sugars,carbohydrates, and other nutrients are being properly absorbed and assimilated, leaving behind mostly fiber in the waste matter. A fibrous stool is a wonderful scrubber of the intestines. As it travels through the digestive tract, it gathers old debris, including ammonia gas stored in pockets. This gives the stool its floating tendency. On the other hand, a dense and heavy stool that sinks quickly to the bottom of the toilet bowl means it’s full of undigested fats and proteins. This can be an indication that someone’s liver is on overload—perhaps to the point of pre-fatty liver,sluggish liver, or the underproduction of bile—which means that it’s not able to help the body break down and absorb fats or put them to proper use. These dense stools, also low in fiber and potentially full of unabsorbed proteins and carbohydrates, travel through the middle of the intestinal tract without making enough contact along the intestinal linings to sweep out ammonia gas and other debris. Don’t stress yourself out about sinking stools. Sometimes the liver intentionally gets rid of excess fat to protect you, not because it’s having trouble. Other times, a dense stool does not have to do with your liver; rather, it’s stress that’s put your gut in knots and compacted waste matter. Just do your best to eat plenty of fiber and go easy on your liver whenever possible. The real takeaway here is not to fear a floating stool. The healthier your diet gets—the more you incorporate the life-changing foods, and especially if you try the 28-Day Cleanse in my first book—the more likely you are to experience floaters and stools that are submerged but not sitting on the bottom, which I jokingly call sub-style stools (because if you can’t joke about a subject like this, what can you joke about?). Passing these stools from time to time is an indication that your body is doing some much-needed maintenance.” FECAL MICROBIOTA TRANSPLANT This practice has gone by a few different names, among them fecal microbiota transplant (FMT), fecal bacteriotherapy,and stool transplant. The idea is that fecal matter from a seemingly healthy person is transferred to a patient dealing with an illness, most commonly an intestinal issue such as C. difficile infection. The productive bacteria from the donor’s stool is meant to enhance the flora of the patient, so that she or he can achieve balance in the gut and overcome infection. The problem here is that there are so many varieties of unproductive bacteria, viruses, and rare strains of fungus that medical communities are not yet aware they should test for in the “healthy” person’s stool. So regardless of how sterile the transplant procedure is, the person receiving the specimen could be exposed to pathogens in the stool that have eluded testing. If the recipient has an illness or weakened immune system to begin with, it’s a risk that doesn’t outweigh the benefits.